World Wide Web

A Short History of the Web - A Short History of the Web is the text of Robert Cailliau's speech at the launching of the European branch of the W3 Consortium (1995)
Design Issues - Architectural and philosophical points - Design Issues - Architectural and philosophical points are are personal notes by Tim Berners-Lee and aren't endorsed by the W3C. These statements of architectural principle explain the thinking behind the specifications. They are aimed at the technical community, to explain reasons, provide a framework to provide consistency for for future developments, and avoid repetition of discussions once resolved.
Tim Berners-Lee's Website - The website of Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web
How Do People Evaluate a Web Site's Credibility? (PDF) - How Do People Evaluate a Web Site’s Credibility? - Results from a Large Study; A research report by B.J. Fogg, Ph.D., Cathy Soohoo, David Danielson Persuasive Technology Lab, Stanford University, Leslie Marable, Consumer WebWatch, Julianne Stanford and Ellen R. Tauber, Sliced Bread Design (2002)

WEB 2.0

What is Web 2.0? - a ground-breaking article by Tim O'Reilly on the Web 2.0 and its impact on internet business models (2005)
Riding the waves of Web 2.0 - overview of the report by PEW Internet and American Life Project (2006)
Riding the waves of Web 2.0 - PDF version for download

Web 3.0

Kevin Kelly's speech on the Web 3.0 (video)

Kevin Kelly, Internet expert from Wired Magazin shares his thoughts about the
Next Web (aka "the Web after the Web we have") with us.
42:09min (2008)

Semantic Web

W3C Semantic Web Activity - The offical W3C site is the first site to start with if you want to know more about the Semantic Web, a research project initiated by Tim Berners-Lee. The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. It's a large collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of researchers and industrial partners worldwide.
Wikipedia's article - Wikipedia's article on the Semantic Web, with an extensive list of lists for further reading
Semantic Web Services (Wikipedia) - this Wikipedia article lists several examples of Semantic Web projects worldwide and technologies related to the Semantic Web.


Zipf’s law and the Internet (PDF) - a research paper by Lada A. Adamic and Bernardo A. Huberman describing some observations of Zipf distributions and their implications for the design and function of the Internet. (2002)
Cyber-Geography Research: Exploring the geographies of the Internet - Cyber-Geography Research: Exploring the geographies of the Internet the Web and other emerging Cyberspaces is an initiative by Martin Dodge, University College London (2004)
The Future of the Internet - overview of the report by PEW Internet and American Life Project (2006)
The Future of the Internet - PDF version for download

Network neutrality

Network Neutrality, Search Neutrality, and the Never-ending Conflict between Efficiency and Fairness in Markets (PDF) - Network Neutrality, Search Neutrality, and the Never-ending Conflict between Efficiency and Fairness in Markets by Andrew Odlyzko, School of Mathematics and Digital Technology Center, University of Minnesota, In:Review of Network Economics Vol.8, Issue 1 – March 2009. Historical precedents suggest that the basic issues underlying the debate about network neutrality, dealing with the balance between efficiency and fairness in markets, will never be resolved. Should net neutrality dominate, attention would likely turn to other parts of the economy that might be perceived as choke points for economic activities, such as Net search. Traditionally, the balance between efficiency and fairness that was struck by policy makers depended heavily on cost considerations. When a service was expensive to provide, fairness was deemphasized. In the current discussion of network neutrality, this issue appears to be unduly neglected.

Books on the Internet

Superb book  Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet - In The Origins Of The Internet, Katie Hafner unveils the scientific work that created the Internet from the very beginning. Originally funded during the Eisenhower administration by IPTO (Information Processing Techniques Office) within the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), ARPANET, the Internet's predecessor, was devised as a way to share U.S. computer resources at a time when computers were expensive and room-sized, unable to communicate with each other. The book attempts to debunk the conventional notion that ARPANET was devised primarily as a communications link that could survive nuclear war (essentially it was not), pioneer developers like Paul Baran (who, along, with British Scientist Donald Davies devised the Internet's innovative packet-switching message technology) recognized the importance of an indestructible message medium in an age edgy over the prospects of global nuclear destruction. The book is excellent at enshrining little known but crucial scientist/administrators like Bob Taylor, Larry Roberts and Joseph Licklider, many of whom laid the groundwork for the computer science industry.
By Katie Hafner, Paperback: 304 pages; Publisher: Simon & Schuster (1998)

Books on the World Wide Web

Superb book  Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web - the classic book written by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and such terms as URL and HTML. British-born physicist Berners-Lee is now the director of the World Wide Web Consortium, which is based at MIT and sets software standards for the Web. In the late 1980s, he wrote the first programs that set up the Web, thus revolutionizing the Internet by allowing users to hyperlink among the world's computers. It was a quantum conceptual leap, and not everyone instantly understood it (some researchers had to be convinced that posting information was better than writing custom programs to transfer it). The release of graphical browsers such as Netscape Navigator made the Web much easier for home users to navigate and led to the commercialization of the Net. Although Berners-Lee calmly eschewed opportunities to get rich, he doesn't subscribe to the notion, common among pre-Web denizens of the Internet, that commercialization is a pox upon cyberspace. After short takes on current issues like privacy and pornography, Berners-Lee moves into prediction and prescription: the Web needs more intuitive interfaces and integration of tools, "annotation servers" that allow comments to be posted on documents and "social machines" that enable national plebiscites. And while he's no digital utopian, he thinks an Internet that balances decentralization and centralization can contribute to a more harmonious society. Berners-Lee's tone is more lofty than quotidian. He'd rather muse about the benefits of decentralization that his revolutionary technology makes possible than respond to Internet skeptics and critics. But he was very, very right a decade ago, and he's well worth reading now.
Paperback: 256 pages; Publisher: Harper Paperbacks; 1st edition (2000)

Books on network research

  Superb book  Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW - The Internet and the WWW are changing our lives in all possible aspects. Our physical existence is based on various biological networks. We have recently learned that the term "network" turns out to be a central notion in our time, and the onsequent explosion of interest in networks is a social and cultural phenomenon. The principles of the complex organization and evolution of networks, natural and artificial are the topic of this book, which is written by physicists and is addressed to all involved researchers and students. The aim of the text is to understand networks and the basic principles of their structural organization and evolution;
By S.N. Dorogovtsev and J.F.F. Mendes; Hardcover: 280 pages; Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA (2003)